Particular training: An outline | Rising Kashmir
Special education refers to a range of services, including social work and rehabilitation counseling, offered to people with disabilities through the public school system, including instruction in the classroom, at home or in institutions. Special school classes are taught by teachers with a vocational qualification. Some teachers specialize in working with children with learning disabilities or multiple disabilities, and classes can be held in a mainstream school or a dormitory for students with disabilities. Special education must include extensive screening and diagnosis by a multidisciplinary team, as well as the development of an annual individual education plan (IEP) for each student that outlines academic and behavioral goals, services to be provided, and assessment methods.
The student’s parents must agree to the initial screening and be invited to all stages of the process. Children’s disabilities are defined in 13 categories: autism, blindness, visual impairment, deafness, hearing impairment, deafblindness, orthopedic (movement) disability, multiple disabilities (multiple disabilities), intellectual disabilities (also called developmental disabilities), severe emotional disorders, speech and language disorders , specific learning disabilities (e.g. dyslexia) and special health care needs (e.g. oxygen dependence). A traumatic brain injury is also qualified.
Screening and evaluation
In order to qualify for special education, a child must be diagnosed with a disability, and it must be established that the disability “affects academic performance” so that special services must be claimed. There are wide variations in the way students are referred and assessed for special education. For children with severe disabilities, the doctor and parents identify the child and refer them to a special school. Other disabilities or deficits in the child’s developing physical and cognitive abilities can be identified through observation by teachers and parents, or revealed through academic or developmental tests. There are many standardized programs for examining large numbers of children between kindergarten and third grade.
Other disabilities can be subtle or compensated, such as B. Dyslexia, and may not be discovered until the demands on college students increase. After the referral, a meeting will be held to decide whether the child should be “assessed” or “assessed” to determine the type of disability they may have. Tests will try to identify the cognitive (academic), social, or physical tasks that the child is having difficulty doing and why the difficulty is there, i.e. what disability or disabilities are present. Tests can include: reading, writing, spelling, and math tests; psychological or intelligence tests; Language and language tests; Vision and hearing tests; or a medical exam. Parents must agree to all tests, ratings, and placements, and can appeal most decisions if they disagree with the conclusions. There is no consensus on the precise diagnosis of specific learning disabilities, and the same treatment goals and teaching strategies are used for all types of learning disabilities. Psychologists often test until they “find” a learning disability for which a student can be given specific instructions.
Mainstreaming and Inclusion
The type of contact that special educators have with students varies depending on the resources and student body. Some teachers, such as visual impairment specialists, may oversee an entire region and only teach a particular student once a week. Others teach entire special education classes and provide general education teachers with support, ideas, and resources for mainstream students. Inclusion, sometimes seen as a logical goal of mainstreaming, is the full integration of special education and services into the general education classroom, where special education teachers work with general education teachers to teach the entire class. The full inclusion of all special needs students would require a restructuring of several traditional educational policies. Full inclusion means a revolution in pedagogical methodology, insofar as it requires extensive ongoing collaboration between special education teachers, general education teachers and supporting minor staff, and the restructuring of curricula and teaching.
Research on existing programs suggests that for inclusion to be successful, certain attitudes and beliefs must be present and certain resources must be available:
• The general education teacher must believe that the student with special educational needs can be successful.
• The school must commit to taking responsibility for the learning outcomes of special needs students.
• Parents need to be informed and supported.
• Services and physical accommodation must be appropriate to the student’s needs.
• The school principal needs to understand the needs of special education students.
• Sufficient teacher and staff hours must be devoted to looking after the child.
• Continuous staff development and technical support must be provided.
• Evaluation procedures must be clear.
• Special educators must be involved in the entire planning process.
• A team approach is used by teachers and other specialists.
• A large number of lesson arrangements must be in place (team teaching, skill group formation, peer tutoring)
Gifted and talented
Gifted and talented children are those who show special skills, aptitude or creativity. Often times, they primarily express themselves in one area such as the humanities, science, math, art, music, or leadership. Gifted and gifted students are usually not considered clients of special education. There is neither a federal contract nor regular funding to promote gifted and gifted students, although about half of the federal states offer programs for gifted and gifted students. In addition to special advice, skipping grades, attending summer or correspondence courses or graduating early, there are a number of adjustments that can be tailored to the needs of gifted students.
Adjustments can be made to the content, the process or the learning products. Some strategies include:
Acceleration: Raising the academic level of the assignments and providing reading material at a higher level of difficulty.
Telescoping: Reducing the time allowed the student to cover certain content. For example, a teacher could give the student two consecutive math chapters to complete in the usual time for one chapter.
Compacting: Testing to see how much of a particular piece of content the student already knows and customizing a curriculum to fill in the gaps. The students can then use the time saved for creative or exploratory activities.
Independent Study: Allow the student to choose their own focus, plan research, present material, and evaluate the process.
Graduated assignments: preparing assignments at different levels for different students. Asking more complex and higher quality questions in assignments for gifted and talented students.
Other tools for promoting the learning of gifted and talented students are portfolios and learning centers. Several commercially prepared curricula are also available that provide structured exploration and design projects.
(Author is doing a doctorate in child psychology)